Roman Architecture .

The Romans ruled the largest empire of ancient times . At its peak , the Roman Empire included all the lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea . It also extended as far north as the British Isles and as far east as the Persian Gulf . Numerous architectural styles were used throughout the empire because many regions had developed their own building traditions . Nevertheless , Roman architecture had a great deal of stylistic unity . The Romans built more kinds of structures than did the people of any earlier civilization . In addition to houses , temples , and palaces , the Romans constructed such projects as aqueducts , public baths , shops , theatres , and gigantic outdoor arenas . Most of these structures were built during a period from about 100 B.C. to the A.D. 300’s.

The Romans were the first to fully utilize two forms of roof design , the arch and the vault . A vault is an arched roof or ceiling . The dome was a common form of vault in Roman architecture . The use of the arch and vault eliminated the need for columns to support the roof . Instead , the roof could rest solely on the outer walls . The Romans used columns simply as sculptural decoration attached to walls .

A splendid example of Roman roof design is the Baths of Caracalla ( A.D. 211 – 217 ) in the city of Rome . The ruins of the building still stand . The baths had a roofing system of vaults that provided vast areas of interior space . This space was so high and so deep that the Romans admired it as an extraordinary new form of architectural beauty .

Country housesbuilt by aristocrats in ancient Rome often featured a courtyard called a peristyle .A covered walkway enclosed the peristyle , which included a garden , fountains , and statues . This peristyle was part of a residence called the House of the Vettii . It was excavated and restored at Pompeii , which was buried by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79 .

A vaultis an arched ceiling or roof that can cover a large space or building . The Romans invented the vault . The Basilica of Constantine in Rome , above , had a vaulted roof .

№3. Complete the sentences given below .

1)The Romans constructed such projects as ---------------------------------------------.

2)The baths had a roofing ---------------------------------------------------------------------.

3)The Roman Empire included ------------------------------------------------------------.

4)Roman architecture had a great deal of --------------------------------------------------.

5)Numerous architectural styles were used because --------------.

6)The dome was -------------------------------.

7)The Romans used columns simply as ------------------------------.

№4. A) Match the words in column A and column B .


1) Stylistic a) decoration

2) Sculptural b) traditions

3) Architectural c) civilization

4) Building d) form

5) Common e) unity

6) Earlier f) beauty .